Quarterly Market Updates & Insights
At any given moment, there are always some economic conditions that are improving while others are declining. The question is whether or not the improving conditions (glass half-full) outweigh the declining conditions (glass half-empty). Currently, we believe the glass is half-full. In our view, the positives of declining energy prices (although possibly short-term), Japan coming back on-line, improved liquidity, and moderate inflationary conditions slightly outweigh the negatives of persistent above-norm unemployment levels and currency weakness. The housing outlook remains mixed and unlikely to significantly improve in the coming months.
From a current perspective, it is tempting to label the precise condition of the economy. Labels like Goldilocks, Rolling Recessions, Growth Recessions, Double Dipper, Soft Patch have been used to describe the broad U.S. economy. However, domestic economic conditions and trends are rarely such that sweeping generalizations are 100% explanatory. Generalizations have traditionally proven to be less than helpful because many variables exist which can offset each other at any given moment.
To illustrate, consider what has been happening with oil prices. While oil prices were spiking toward $110 per barrel, talk was rampant about $120 per barrel and $5.00 pump prices, creating predictions of sharp reductions in disposable income and consumer spending. The conclusion was that a meaningful reduction in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth was imminent for the remainder of 2011. As the quarter progressed, oil prices reversed, falling to mid-$90 levels. Then, unexpectedly, the Obama Administration announced release of oil from its emergency stockpile. Oil prices, West Texas Intermediate crude, dropped to under $90 per barrel, a decline of almost 20% from the highs.
Following the earlier logic, it would appear that consumer spending will now be less constrained, energy prices will trend lower and economic activity will pick up. Certainly, there is merit in each of these. However, keeping current events in perspective, energy prices are now at approximately the same levels as at the at the beginning of the year. Longer term, oil prices will be driven by demand created from economic activity and changes in supply, not short-term measures such as stockpile releases. In our first quarter 2011 outlook, we suggested that oil per barrel prices would likely range between $85 and $110 per barrel, and this remains a realistic expectation. On June 22nd, the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) issued the following statement which we have paraphrased:
The recovery is continuing at a moderate pace but less than previously expected. Near-term recent weakness is transitory and the pace is likely to increase gradually. While inflation is no longer subdued, longer term inflationary conditions appear to remain stable. Quantitative Easing II (QE2) is ending but balance sheet adjustments may continue if viewed as necessary.
We are in agreement with this statement.
The Federal Reserve (the Fed) has provided liquidity to the financial system, evidenced by estimates that banks have in excess of $1 trillion in reserves with the Fed. In addition, a recently released Birinyi Associates report stated that companies represented in the S&P 500 have approximately $800 million of cash equivalents on their balance sheets. Over the past two years, corporations have been able to access the credit markets as evidenced by the high level of debt issuance.
The relative issue is no longer one of liquidity but rather the velocity of money. What could improve velocity? Until now, the Fed's monetary policy has been the major force. Now is the time for another catalyst to emerge. The catalyst(s) may come from many sources – regulatory clarity, tax policy or adjustments to fiscal policy are all among the possibilities. Another catalyst is developments associated with the U.S. debt ceiling debate. Given the political undercurrents, we do expect the issue to be resolved prior to the August deadline, but exactly how much meaningful, long-term progress gets accomplished is extremely difficult to forecast. Ultimately, real positive change is needed to boost business and consumer confidence and enable velocity, rather than liquidity, to emerge as the driving force. Until significant movement develops, uncertainty will persist and restrain the rate of economic recovery.
When 2011 began, our broad expectations for growth were based on accommodative Fed policy, relatively low inflationary pressures, stubbornly high unemployment levels and moderate real GDP growth rates. The Fed is committed to its low interest policy and implementation of an "exit strategy" appears to be a 2012 event. We have seen a mild increase in the Consumer Price Index due to increases in food and energy prices.
Near term, both consumer disposable income and businesses' operating margins will benefit from the recent decline in oil prices. Although the unemployment rate continues to hover around the 9% level, we have seen gains in private hiring and declines in public hiring. Both are favorable trends, but the rate of change persists at below historic norm recovery pace. Overall, we remain comfortable with the 2011 real GDP forecast growth rate of +2.2% – +2.8%.
BBVA Compass is the trade name for Compass Bank, which is a member of the BBVA Group. Securities products are NOT deposits, are NOT FDIC insured, and are NOT bank guaranteed. May LOSE value, are NOT insured by any federal government agency.
This material contains forward looking statements and projections. There are no guarantees that these results will be achieved.
Investing involves risk including the potential loss of principal. There is no guarantee that a diversified portfolio will outperform a non-diversified portfolio in any given market environment. No investment strategy, such as asset allocation, can guarantee a profit or protect against loss in periods of declining values. Past performance is no guarantee of future results. Please note that individual situations can vary. Therefore, the information presented here should only be relied upon when coordinated with individual professional advice.
Indexes are unmanaged and investors are not able to invest directly into any index.
International investing involves special risks not present with U.S. investments due to factors such as increased volatility, currency fluctuation, and differences in auditing and other financial standards. These risks can be accentuated in emerging markets.
Investments in stocks of small companies involve additional risks. Smaller companies typically have a higher risk of failure, and are not as well established as larger blue-chip companies. Historically, smaller-company stocks have experienced a greater degree of market volatility than the overall market average.
Equity investments tend to be volatile and do not involve the guarantees associated with holding a bond to maturity.
In general, the bond market is volatile as prices rise when interest rates fall and vice versa. This effect is usually pronounced for longer-term securities. Any fixed income security sold or redeemed prior to maturity may be subject to a substantial gain or loss.
Fixed income investments are subject to various risks including changes in interest rates, credit quality, inflation risk, market valuations, prepayments, corporate events, tax ramifications and other factors.
The investor should note that vehicles that invest in lower-rated debt securities (commonly referred to as junk bonds) involve additional risks because of the lower credit quality of the securities in the portfolio. The investor should be aware of the possible higher level of volatility, and increased risk of default.
Municipal bond offerings are subject to availability and change in price. If sold prior to maturity, municipal bonds may be subject to market and interest risk. An issuer may default on payment of the principal or interest of a bond. Bond values will decline as interest rates rise. Depending upon the municipal bond offered, alternative minimum tax and state/local taxes could apply.
The price of commodities is subject to substantial price fluctuations of short periods of time and may be affected by unpredictable international monetary and political policies. The market for commodities is widely unregulated and concentrated investing may lead to higher price volatility.
Investments in real estate have various risks including possible lack of liquidity and devaluation based on adverse economic and regulatory changes.
Other Sources: Bloomberg; California.gov; Russell.com; First page index returns are calculated on a total return basis using the following indexes: S&P 500 (SPX), MSCI World (MXWO), MSCI Emerging Markets (MXEF), Bloomberg 7-10 Year U.S. Treasury Index (USG4TR), Morningstar U.S. Agency Bond TR Index (MSBIUATR), Municipal Bond Buyer 40 Index (BBMIRNEW), Credit Suisse High Yield Index (CSHY), MSCI U.S. REIT Index (RMZ Index).